Preventative Maintenance for Pets - Inflammation

Preventative Maintenance Series #1: Inflammation

As animals age, inflammation is a common response in the body as pets start to feel aches and pains associated with mobility, digestion, or the beginning stages of disease (Richter, 2019). Of all of the cannabis research in animals and humans that currently exists, analgesic studies are the most prominently documented to this date (Richter, 2019). Inflammation can be an underlying factor that may cause pain in your animal’s body (Hannon et al., 2020). Chronic pain associated from inflammation may be difficult to treat because there are not many treatment options available that are safe for the body to consume over extended periods of time (Philpott et al., 2017). The typical treatment plan for chronic pain includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but when used regularly, their overall effect is reduced as a tolerance is built up to the medication and can be harmful to the gastrointestinal or cardiovascular system (Philpott et al., 2017). Cannabidiol (CBD) and Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been analyzed and determined to contain anti-inflammatory properties (Pellati et al., 2018). Hemp containing higher amounts of CBD is a much more plausible treatment option for animals as opposed to Marijuana because the THC content in Hemp is under 0.3%. This indicates that the psychoactive component of the plant should not be observed in the utilization of any CBD or hemp products (Pellati et al., 2018).

Chronic inflammation over lengthened periods of time may cause damage at the cellular level and promote tumor growth leading to cancer or disease in animals (Pellati et al., 2018). There is a myriad of ways that cancer can be caused however there is a strong correlation of cancer evolving from inflammation, chronic irritation, or infection (Pellati et al., 2018). “The incidence of cancer rises dramatically with age, probably due to the decreased efficacy of cellular repair mechanisms” (Pellati et al., 2018). Animals who have been diagnosed from a veterinarian with inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), food-responsive diarrhea (FRD), or arthritis as well as cancer may benefit from taking hemp that contains CBD as a treatment option (Pellati et al., 2018).

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) and Inflammation

The endocannabinoid system is incorporated in the process of tissue inflammation (Philpott et al., 2017). Cannabinoids have the potential to become engaged in the inflammatory process leading to a decrease in the amount of pain that animals are feeling when experiencing inflammation in their body (Philpott et al., 2017). Cannabinoids bind to Cannabinoid-2 Receptors (CB2 receptors) which are present in the body and are automatically altered and increased in the presence of inflammatory cell activation (Pellati et al., 2018). Activated CB2 receptors have the capability to decrease inflammation through stopping the manufacturing of proinflammatory cytokines, monocytes, and macrophages which are cells involved in the inflammatory response (Pellati et al., 2018). Over time, the production of inflammatory cells may lead to “Low-level inflammation contributes to degenerative changes that affect the entire joint leading to the development of peripheral sensitization and nociceptive pain” in animals who are experiencing arthritis (Philpott et al., 2017). Medications that target and activate the endocannabinoid system such as CBD have the potential to treat chronic inflammation such as chronic arthritis, IBD, and FRD in animals (Philpott et al., 2017 and Cerquetella et al., 2010 ).

IBD in Dogs

Dogs can exhibit signs of IBD through the aging process with signs of mucosal inflammation in the stomach, small intestine and/or large intestine (Cerquetella et al., 2010). Symptoms that can be seen in dogs that have been diagnosed with IBD include lingering weight loss, vomiting, and/or diarrhea (Cerquetella et al., 2010). If IBD goes untreated, it can lead to complications such as abdominal swelling, fluid accumulation, or gastrointestinal bleeding (Cerquetella et al., 2010). Compared to healthy dogs, dogs that were diagnosed with IBD demonstrated contrasting small intestinal bacteria suggesting that there may be a connection between microflora and IBD (Cerquetella et al., 2010). Some breeds are more prone to becoming diagnosed with IBD including Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers, Boxers, French Bulldog, Doberman Pinscher, Mastiff, and Alaskan Malamute (Cerquetella et al., 2010). Dogs can also be diagnosed with FRD associated with gut inflammation when dogs ingest food that they are not supposed to be eating or just have an upset stomach (Cerquetella et al., 2010). When the stomach is inflamed, CBD can help calm the inflammatory process leading to muscle relaxation as well as help prevent unevenness in the gut microbiome which may agitate the stomach even more (Pellati et al., 2018). Possible treatment options for FRD or early stages of IBD in dogs include changing their diet to include hydrolysed proteins which can be formulated out of hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (Girgih et al., 2014 and Cerquetella et al., 2010). If IBD goes untreated and there are internal complications, owners of animals should seek veterinary assistance immediately.

Integrative Veterinary Medicine and Chronic Inflammation

Integrative veterinary medicine combining holistic medicine and westernized medicine may be the best approach when dealing with chronic inflammation in diagnoses including chronic arthritis, cancer, or IBD in pets. Further testing may be necessary such as blood work, stool samples, or physical examinations by a veterinarian to confirm inflammation is present in the body. When giving CBD to your pets as a preventative measure for inflammation, always consult with your veterinarian on dosage, efficacy, and product information. It is incumbent that veterinarians are educated on the endocannabinoid system and CBD products to provide adequate medical knowledge to their patients. Further research is needed on animal’s taking CBD as a supplement or hemp hydrolysed protein feed as a diet option for preventative maintenance throughout their entire life span to analyze if there are any adverse side effects with these products.

Keywords: Dogs, Inflammation, CBD, Pain, Chronic, IBD, Arthritis, Cancer, FRD

Abbreviations:
Cannabidiol- CBD
Tetrahydrocannabinol- THC
Cannabinoid-2 Receptor- CB2 Receptor
Inflammatory Bowel Disease- IBD
Food Responsive Diarrhea- FRD
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAIDs)

References

1. Richter, G. (2019, May 1). CBD & CANNABIS FOR PETS IN PAIN A veterinarian’s advice on how to use cannabis to treat pain and inflammation in your four-legged companion. Project CBD. https://www.projectcbd.org/medicine/cbd-cannabis-pets-pain?utm_campaign=later-linkinbio-project_cbd&utm_content=later-9768450&utm_medium=social&utm_source=instagram
2. Hannon, M. B., Deabold, K. A., Talsma, B. N., Lyubimov, A., Iqbal, A., Zakharov, A., Gamble, L. J., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2020). Serum cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and their native acid derivatives after transdermal application of a low-THC Cannabis sativa extract in beagles. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics, 10.1111/jvp.12896. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12896
3. Pellati, F., Borgonetti, V., Brighenti, V., Biagi, M., Benvenuti, S., & Corsi, L. (2018). Cannabis sativa L. and Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoids: Their Chemistry and Role against Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Cancer. BioMed research international, 2018, 1691428. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1691428
4. Cerquetella, M., Spaterna, A., Laus, F., Tesei, B., Rossi, G., Antonelli, E., Villanacci, V., & Bassotti, G. (2010). Inflammatory bowel disease in the dog: differences and similarities with humans. World journal of gastroenterology, 16(9), 1050–1056. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v16.i9.1050
5. Girgih, A. T., Alashi, A. M., He, R., Malomo, S. A., Raj, P., Netticadan, T., & Aluko, R. E. (2014). A novel hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate reduces oxidative stress factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nutrients, 6(12), 5652–5666. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6125652
6. Philpott, H. T., OʼBrien, M., & McDougall, J. J. (2017). Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain, 158(12), 2442–2451. https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001052

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No animals are harmed in the manufacturing of our products. 

In the animal rights movement, cruelty–free is a label for products or activities that do not harm or kill animals anywhere in the world. Products tested on animals are not considered cruelty–free, since these tests are often painful and cause the suffering and death of millions of animals every year.

Vegan Dog Products

No animal products or by-products used in any of our oils.

The only non-vegan product we have are the Pumpkin Hemp Dog Biscuits which do contain egg. (The Peanut Butter Banana Hemp Dog Biscuits do not and are also vegan.)


DEFINITION OF VEGAN VS. VEGETARIAN

Getting vegetarianism confused with veganism is a common mistake most people make. So today we are going to closely examine the definition of vegan versus the definition of a vegetarian in this post. Hopefully, this provides a little clarity.

DEFINITION OF A VEGETARIAN

The Oxford dictionary definition of a vegetarian is “a person who does not eat meat or does not believe in eating meat, fish, fowl, or in some cases, any food derived from animals, as eggs or cheese, but subsists on vegetables, fruits, nuts, grain etc.”

This basically divides vegetarians into two groups; vegetarians who exclude eggs and dairy and vegetarians who include these items in their diets. The latter can then be broken up into a further three groups; ovo- vegetarians (who consume eggs but not milk), lacto-vegetarians (who consume milk but not eggs) and ovo-lacto vegetarians who consume both milk and eggs.

There’s often controversy surrounding “semi-vegetarians”, whose diet consists mainly of vegetarian foods but includes fish or poultry. The main differentiating factor between all of the above-mentioned groups is how much animal products are included in the diet.

DEFINITION OF VEGAN

The above difference is the main distinguishing factor between the definition of vegan and that of a vegetarian because vegans exclude animal products in their entirety. The official definition of veganism is “the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in a diet. As well as following an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of sentient animals.

A follower of veganism is known as a vegan”. That means veganism extends beyond the diet of a vegan individual. That is the biggest difference between vegans and vegetarians. While vegetarians may not consume animal products, they may use them if they are present in other products, such as items containing silk, honey or leather.

Vegans, on the other hand, avoid the use of animal products in all areas of their lifestyles.

Human Grade Dog Products

All ingredients and manufacturing processes are Human-Grade. We would never make anything for our pets considered not suitable for ourselves. The term human-grade in pet food means the finished product is legally suitable and approved as nourishment for humans. It is “edible.” Human foods are much more rigorously regulated than foods made for animals.

Organic Dog Products

All of our products are made with top quality, Certified Organic carrier oils and Organically-grown ingredients, all sourced responsibly and sustainably. Our products are infused with our own Full-spectrum Hemp extract which is derived from our own Organically-grown Colorado Hemp that was grown at our own facilities.

Cultivar Specific Hemp Oil Dog Products

For consistency. HempMy Pet grows one particular cultivar of hemp, selected specifically for its cannabinoid profile, and uses it every time for our hemp extract, maintaining consistency and eliminating unknowing trial and error.

Cannabis strains including Hemp and Marijuana are either pure or hybrid of the plant genus Cannabis, which encompasses the species Sativa, Indica, and Ruderalis.

Varieties are developed to intensify specific characteristics of the plant, or to differentiate the strain for the purposes of marketing or to make it more effective as a natural supplement. Variety names are typically chosen by their growers, and often reflect properties of the plant such as taste, color, smell, or the origin of the variety. These varieties have been cultivated to contain a high percentage of cannabinoids, including CBD, CBG, CBC and more. Several varieties of Cannabis, known as Hemp, have a very low THC content, and are instead grown for their fiber, seed and therapeutic propertiess

Third Party Tested Hemp Oil for Dogs

From Seed-to-Sale all HempMy Pet products are tested by reputable independent laboratories for purity, safety, and quality. The soil, the water, the plants and the finished product are all rigorously tested to ensure no solvents, pesticides, heavy metals or micro-bacterial contanimants are present. Certificates of Analysis (COAs) are published online with each product and always available upon request.

Organic Hemp Dog Products

All of our Hemp is organically grown in Colorado at our own greenhouse or farm. We do not import our hemp from overseas or any other state. We strive for perfection in our growing, curing, processing and formulating of our Hemp products.

Veterinarian Recommended Hemp Oil Dog Products

Clinically studied by independent veterinarians and sold in veterinarian clinics nationwide.

Full Spectrum Hemp Oil for Dogs

All the Cannabinoids, CBD, CBG, CBC..plus the terpenes and other minor cannabinoids made from the Whole Plant for the complete entourage effect.

CBD has become quite popular over the last couple of years but despite what you might think it is only one of the 100 compounds that have been identified in the Cannabis Sativa L plant. Full-spectrum CBD oil, unlike CBD isolate products, includes a wide range of cannabinoids present in the cannabis or hemp plant. Depending on the condition and what you are looking to achieve it can provide a greater effect than CBD alone as all the cannabinoids work together in what is known as the entourage effect.

Full-spectrum CBD also contains a variety of essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, protein, chlorophyll, terpenes, flavonoids, and fiber. When referring to CBD in the hemp plant, it’s important to understand that Hemp contains a large number of cannabinoids (in trace amounts), but the main compounds are CBD and cannabidiolic acid (CBDa). As CBDa is more abundant in the hemp plant, firms must decarboxylate the oil. This process heats the oil and changes CBDa into CBD.

Just one last thing before we explain the benefits of Full Spectrum CBD oil, its important to understand that CBD from Cannabis is only legal in Medical or recreational states, while CBD hemp oil is legal in all 50 states under the 2014 US Farm Bill. While it may not be able to treat all conditions it has been known to assist with a variety of medical conditions including anxiety, depression and acute pain.

The Benefits of the Whole Plant

One of the most important studies relating to full-spectrum CBD oil took place at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem’s Hadassah School in 2015. It compared the performance of a full spectrum extract with one that contained CBD only. The study concluded that full spectrum was more effective when fighting pain and inflammation.

While CBD only is somewhat effective, the whole plant extract not only provided faster and better relief, the effects also lasted longer. This is why an increasing number of companies in the CBD industry are selling full-spectrum CBD oil as a rule.

The aforementioned entourage effect is the main reason behind the efficacy of whole plant extracts. There are over 100 ‘identified’ compounds in the cannabis plant. While most of these compounds have their own therapeutic benefit, they come together in a synergistic way to provide far better performance than any single compound, including CBD.